Short notes of Indian Polity Notes

सामान्य प्रतियोगी परीक्षाओ में भारतीय राज्यव्यवस्था का महत्वपूर्ण भाग है | SSC CGL, SSC CHSL, RRB NTPC, RRB GROUP D, STATE PCS और अन्य प्रतियोगी परीक्षाओ में भारत के राज्यव्यवस्था  से प्रश्न पुछे जाते हैं | इस पोस्ट में हम आपको भारतीय राज्यव्यवस्था (Indian Polity notes) से संक्षिप्त नोट्स प्रदान करने जा रहें हैं | यह आपकी परीक्षा की तयारी में आपके लिए बहुत उपयोगी होगी |

Indian Polity notes


We, the people of India, having solemnly

resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign

Socialist Secular Democratic Republic

and to secure to all its citizens:

Justice, Social, economic and political,

Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;

Equality of status and of opportunity;

and to promote among them all.

Fraternity assuring the dignity of the

individual and the Unity and Integrity of the nation;

In our constituent assembly this 26th day of Nov 1949, do hereby adopt, enact and give to ourselves this constitution.

Note: Word preamble took from the USA.

भारतीय संविधान का विकास

1934: Idea of the constituent assembly given by MN Roy.

1935: INC (Indian Nation Congress) demanded it officially.

1935: Accepted in August offer.

1946: Constituted under cabinet mission plan.

Number of Members during the constitution of India

296+93= 389

296 members come from Provinces state and 93 members come from Princely state.

Women member in constitution assembly = 9

  • The first meeting of the constitutional assembly is 9 Dec 1946.
  • Dr. Sachidanand Sinha as 1st president of Constitutional Assembly, on basis of most aged.
  • 11 Dec 1946 (2nd Meeting)

Dr. Rajendra Prasad             – President

Vice President                     – HC Mukherjee

Advisor                               – B.N.Roy

  • 13 Dec 1946 ( 3rd Meeting)

     Objective Resolution presented by JL Nehru.


Drafting Committee        –           BR Ambedkar

Union Power                  –           JL Nehru

Union Constitution         –           JL Nehru

State Committee             –           JL Nehru

Advisory Committee on

The fundamental right of      –           Sardar Patel


Provincial Constitution   –           Sardar Patel

Rules of Procedure         –           Dr.Rajendra Prasad

The Indian constitution was completed in 2 years 11 Months 18 days.

On the same day, National Symbol is accepted

24 Jan 1950: Last meeting

National Anthem and National Song are adopted at the last meeting.

Dr. Rajendra Prasad as 1st president of India.


                       Part                  –           22

                       Schedules         –           08

                       Articles             –           395

Now in Present 25 Parts, 12 Schedules, 448 Articles

Salient features of Indiana constitution

  • Lenghtiest written constitution.
  • Blend of Rigidity & flexibility
  • Parliamentary form of Govt.
  • A federal system with unitary bias.
  • Secular state.
  • Welfare state.
  • Emergency provision

Important Sources:-


  1. Parliamentary form of govt.
  2. Bicameralism.
  3. Rule of law.
  4. Office of CAG
  5. Single Citizenship


  1. Fundamental Rights.
  2. Judicial review.
  3. Independence of Judiciary.
  4. Written constitution


  1. Fundamental duties


  1. DPSP (Directive principle of state policy)


  1. Federal System.
  2. Residual power.


  1. Concurrent list


  1. Suspension of Fundamental rights during Emergency.

South Africa

  1. Constitutional amendment

Important Part of Indian constituent

Part 1: Union and its territories (Art. 1to 4)

Art.1: India, that is Bharat, shall be a union of state.

Art.3: State reorganization bill, Alteration of areas, boundaries, or name of the existing state.

Part 2: Citizenship (Art. 5 to 11)

Part 3: Fundamental Rights (12 to 35)

  1. Right to equality.
  2. Right to freedom.
  3. Right against exploitation.
  4. Right to freedom of religion.
  5. Cultural and educational rights.
  6. Right to constitutional remedies.

Note: Right to property- Change to legal right -1978 44th amendments

  • Right to equality (Art. 14 to 18)

Art. 14: Equality before law.

Art. 15: Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race caste, sex, or place of birth

Art.16: Equality of opportunity in public employment.

Art. 17: Abolition of untouchability.

Art. 18: Abolition of titles.

  • Right to freedom. (Art. 19 to 22)

Art. 19: Freedom of speech, expression assembles peacefully, from the association, move freely, and settle anywhere, any profession.

  • No ex post-Facto
  • No double Jeopardy.
  • No self incrimination.

Art. 21: Protection of life & personal liberty.

  • Right to Live with human dignity
  • Right to Decent environment
  • Right to Privacy
  • Right to Health
  • Right to free legal aid
  • Right to Fair trial
  • Right to Information
  • Right to Women to be treated with dignity
  • Right to Emergency medical aid.

Note: – Art. 21A: Right to education added to all (6 to 14 years) child under 86th amendments in 2002

Right against exploitation (Art. 23to 24)

Art. 23: Prohibition of traffic in Human beings and forced labor.

Art. 24: Prohibits child labor.

Right to freedom of religion (Art. 25to 28)

Art. 25: Freedom to profess, practice, and propagate any religion.

Art. 26: Freedom to manage religious affairs.

Art. 27: Freedom from taxation on the promotion of religion

Art.28: Freedom from attending religious instruction.

Cultural and educational rights (Art. 29 to 30)

Art. 29: Protection of interest minorities.

Art. 30: Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.

Right to constitutional remedies (Art.32)

Art.32: Heart and Soul of the Constitution.

DPSP: Directive principle of state Policy. (Art. 36 to 51)

  • Directions/ instruction to state.
  • Non-Justiciable.
  • Fundamental to governance.
  • Source: Irish constitution.

Art. 38: State to secure a social order for the promotion of the welfare of people.

Art.39A: Equal justice and free legal aid.

Art. 40: Organization of village panchayats

Art. 42: Just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.

Art.44: Uniform civil code.

Art.45: Free and compulsory education for children.

Art.48: Organization of agriculture and animal husbandry.

Art.49: Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance.

Some important Articles


Article no.Post
52राष्ट्रपति का पद
53कार्य एंव शक्ति
72श्रमा दान
85लोक सभा का विघटन
143supreme court से सलाह

Vice President

Article no. Post
64/89राज्य सभा की सभापति


Article no. Post
74मंत्री परिषद


Article no. Post
79संसद की चर्चा
100अध्यक्ष महोदय का निर्णायक मत
105संसदीय विशेषाधिकार
108संयुक्त अधिवेशन
110धन विधयेक
116लेखा अनुदान
117वित्र विधयेक

Supreme Court

  1. 124- गठन
  2. 131- क्षेत्राधिकार
  3. 137- न्यायिक पुनः विलोकन
  4. 143- superme court राष्ट्रपति को सलाह दे सकता है |


Article no. Post
153राज्यों के लिए राज्यपाल
154शक्ति एंव कार्य


Article no. Post

Also, read

Bharat ke Pramukh Darre Aur Rajay

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